Aortic Stenosis

Aortic stenosis AS may be found in MRCPCH either without or following an operation. Depending on severity it may be asymptomatic or lead to sudden death. Anatomy Valvular (most common form), subvalvular and supravalvular aortic stenosis. The most common cause

Atrial Septal Defect

Anatomy This can occur as secundum defects (80%)  , primum defects (10%), or sinus venosus ASD. Frequency 1/1500 need closure. 10-20% of adults have some sort of inter-atrial communication. Physiology Holes between the atria are usually remnants of the foramen

Pulmonary Stenosis

Anatomy Most cases of valvular pulmonary stenosis are congenital in origin. Acquired pulmonary stenosis are less common but may be caused by carcinoid syndrome, rheumatic fever, stenosis of bioprosthetic or valved conduits used in repair of complex congenital lesions involving

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot Patients with this condition are common in the Clinical Examination as it is a relatively common condition and the patients are usually stable. They may pre or post repair. Anatomy VSD Pulmonary stenosis Overriding Aorta Right Ventricular

Transposition of the Great Arteries

TGA is an important duct-dependent cardiac defect. A patient may be present in the exam following BT shunt placement or after corrective surgery. Anatomy Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) –  the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

VSD is the most common congenital heart condition. It may occur as an isolated defect, or it may be a component of anomalies such as tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great arteries, coarctation of aorta etc. Anatomy Perimembranous Muscular Apical

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